Bangladesh which is officially popular as “People’s Republic of Bangladesh” is located along Southern Asia. This independent nation treasures a long history which becomes fascinating for the history buffs. It creates a huge part of ethnolinguistic part of Bengal. Being situated at Bay of Bengal’s zenith and bordered by India and Myanmar, and partitioned with the thin Siliguri Corridor from Nepal and Bhutan, this self-made nation has a lot to show and treasure within it.
Presently Bangladesh is a sovereign country which they become in 1971 post-fight and acquiring independence from Pakistan in the liberation war. Modern Bangladesh borders were made after partition from Bengal and India in August 1947 when this part became East Pakistan of the newly founded State of Pakistan. Bangladesh – The name was primarily written separately “Bangla Desh”. Bangla refers to the Bengali language and Bengal region.
This nation might have existed independently for more than 30 years, but its linguistic and cultural roots are way deeper than you think. Bangla language was different by 7th century along with literature emerged by the 11th Century. Religion also set the Bangla people apart. Over a millennium the Hindu trend was taken by Buddhist, whereas from the 12th Century, Muslims invaded this region from Northwest and Islam won the majority.
In the greater Bengal, the Stone Age tools found dates back to more than 20,000 years which is an indication of human settlement in this part.
The ancient Bengal was occupied by Tibeto-Burman, Austroasiatic, Dravidians and the Indo-Aryans who migrated and the urban settlement were found in the Iron Age which is at the mid of first BCE millennium while Northern Black Polished Ware was a culture in Indian Sub-continent.
In the 2nd and 3rd Century BCE, Bengal was undertaken by the Mauryan Empire. This empire promoted Jainism and Buddhism along with under the emperorship of Asoka; it was able to reach its agenda. In the 3rd Century, Gupta Empire overtook the power and this is the time when the invention of chess, the theory of Earth and orbiting the Sun, concept of Zero, lunar and solar eclipse and Sanskrit literature evolved.
Merchants from Sufis, Middle East, and missionaries brought Islam with them by the end of the first millennium. Some suggested that early Muslims that includes Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas who is the uncle to Prophet Mohammad utilized Bengal as a point to move to China using the South Silk Road. The Abbasid Caliphate coins found in this country is a resemblance of the trade system. This led to the Indo-Arabic numeral system.
The Muslims living here gradually adapted to the customs and tradition of this nation which includes dress, food, and lifestyle. For instance, the Muslim women started wearing saris, bindi, and bangles and also their art forms changed. Islam conversion was reinforced by constructing mosques, Sufi Khanqahs, and Madrasas.
By the end of 16th Century, post Battle of Tukaroi, the Bengal Delta was conquered by the Mughals and Dhaka became the provincial capital during 1608. During the Mughal reign, economic prosperity, agrarian reforms and trading of muslin and Silk trades increased to a definite extent. Agrarian reform made Bengal the rice basket of Indian sub-continent.
During 1717, Nawabs of Bengal constructed their headquarters in Murshidabad. However, last sovereign Nawab got defeated by British on 23 June 1757.
British East India Company started their rule in1757 whose Presidency was made in 1765 in Calcutta. During this period, East Bengal founded the plantation economy which centered jute trade and tea production and the supply of jute increased in the 20th century. In 1905, Bengal was divided by Bengal and founded the administrative division of Assam and Eastern Bengal. This resulted in the Swadeshi Movement by Indian National Congress.
The entire period between 1947 and 1970 was known to have friction between Dominion of Pakistan and East Bengal.
In the year 1971 23rd of March, the flag of Bangladesh was raised for the very first time. In the liberation war, the locals claimed declaration of Independence and started Multi Bahini, National Liberation Army of Bangladesh. In the war, the army took various steps against the Pakistani forces. India supported the army of Bangladesh in this war. The war lasted for nine long months and finally, the Pakistan army surrendered on 16th December 1971.
Post acquiring independence, the nation became a republic country within secular democracy and Commonwealth. In 1973, this nation joined the Non-Aligned and OIC movement and later became a part of the United Nations.
With passing years, the poverty percentage of Bangladesh is reducing from 57% to 25.6% in 1990 to 2014. Moreover, per capita income has also increased and the nation has witness success in human development. Despite his climate challenge and history, this nation stood upright and is now a tourist location for many.