Environment is the sum total of all living and non-living interacting components, influences events surrounding an organism. Indian environment is classified as two types-- 1. Living creature and 2. Non-living creature; and the living creature are divided into two type, these are animal and vegetation. The non-living creature of environment are divided into three types, these are water, land and air.
India is one of the oldest civilization in the world and seventh largest country with an area of 3287263 sq km. India is a country of multiple rivers as for example the Ganga river, the Indus river, the Brahmaputra river, the Narmada river, the Tapti river, the Kaveri river, , the Godavari river, the Krishna river, the Mahanadi and many more. Basically the earliest civilization of India was constructed in the bank of sevaral rivers.
Human lives of India mostly depend on the river, because the devolopment of agriculture and industry are impossible without water which supply from rivers. Last 62 years of the independence India has become self sufficient in agricultural production and is now the tenth industrialized country in the world and the sixth nation to have gone into outer space to conquer nature for the benefit of the people.
India extends from the snow-covered Himalayan to the tropical rain forests of the south. The Himalayan protects India from the cold Siberian wind and it obstructs clouds which make heavy rainfall in Monsoon and it also separate India from the outer world. It stretches through out the south part of India and the other three side of India joint with the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian Sea on the west.
Forest is an ecosystém consisting of trees which support innumerable life forms and it is an important part of environment. These are there to clean the air and cool it on hot days and conserve heat at night. More over forest act as a unique sound âbsorbers. Our rain fall also depends on forest. It is an excellent means to keep our environment balanced.
According to the survey of forest department the actual forest cover of India is 19.27% of the geographic area. Types of forests in India fall into six major groups. These include moist tropical, dry tropical, Montane sub tropical, Montane temperate, sub alpine, and alpine. These are further subdivided into 16 major types of forests.
The climate of India may be broadly described as tropical monsoon type. India's climate is affected by two seasonal winds - the north-east monsoon and the south-west monsoon. The north-east monsoon commonly known as winter monsoon blows from land to sea whereas south-west monsoon known as summer monsoon blows from sea to land after crossing the Indian Ocean, the Arabian sea and the bay of Bengal. The south-west monsoon brings most of the rainfall during the year in the country.
India is a country of diversities. Great mountains, rivers, extensive plateaus and plains, extended coastlines etc., make up the landscape of our country. The landforms of India can be classified into five divisions. Respectively they are- The Northern mountain region, The Great Plains of the north, the desert of Rajasthan, the Great Plateau and the Coastal Strips and Islands.
The Northern mountain region: The regions cover a variety of Himalayan ranges which extends along the India's northern and north eastern border in a 2410 km curve. Himalayas are the tallest mountain system in the world.
The Great Plains of the north: The Great Plains of the north is known as the Indio- Gangetic Plain. It lies in the Himalayas and the southern peninsula which includes the valley of Bhramputra, the Ganges and the Indus River and their branches.
The Desert Region: This region contains a large Desert and some Little Desert in India. Rajasthan and Gujurat fall in this region.
Peninsular Plateau: The Peninsular plateau is built of stable rocks and is the most wide physiographic partition of India. This physiographic partition has an area of about above 1500000 sq. km. It has a diverse landscape of mountains, plateaus and valleys. The plateaus of this physiographic division have an average height of above 400m from mean sea level. Anamudi with a height of 2695m is the highest peak in this zone.
The Coastal Strips and Islands: The coastal strip surroundings the Deccan plateau along its eastern and western side. The Eastern Coastal Plain insert between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The Western Coastal Plain lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
There are many islands placed in the Indian Ocean, which form part of our country. These are dispersed in the Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and in the Gulf of Mannar, between India and Sri Lanka.
The rivers of India play an important role in the lives of the Indian people. The river systems provide irrigation, potable water, cheap transportation, electricity, and the livelihoods for a large number of people all over the country.
This easily explains why nearly all the major cities of India are located by the banks of rivers. The rivers also have an important role in Hindu mythology and are considered holy by all Hindus in the country. Indian Rivers are classified as Himalayan River, Peninsular River, costal River and Rivers of the inland drainage basin.
The last 62 years of the independence the huge development of Indian economy is leading to a number of environmental issues. Indian environment is decreasing its natural balance. The environmental issues in India are uncontrolled growth of urbanization, industrialization, massive intensification of agriculture, rapid growth of population which adversely affects the natural resources, pesticides and fertilizers, vehicles and industry emissions and the destruction of forests.