India > History > Moghul Empire

Begining of Mughal Period

Babur was the ruler of Kabul later he established the Mughal empire in 1526 AD. Ibrahim Lodi the ruler of Punjab opposed him and wished to fight a battle. Babur entered India in 1526 AD with his well-trained expert army of 12,000 to meet the sultan's huge, but amateur force of more than 100,000 armies. Babur defeated the sultan Ibrahim Lodi very badly at the battle of Panipat.

In 1527 AD, Babor beaten a Rajput kingdom which directed by Rana Sangha. After the next year in 1529 AD Babur attacked the joint forces of Afghans and the ruler of Bengal, but he died in 1530 AD before he could wins. He established a number of historical buildings and garden among them Babur Namah was his great discover, and also gorgeous gardens in Kabul, Lahore, and Agra.


Babur was succeeded by his son Humayun (reign 1530 AD to 56 AD). Being a ruler Humayun faced many difficulties which were created by his father Baur. He was attacked by the Afghan and Rajput ruler jointly in 1540 AD loosed his kingdom. After that he fled to Persia, where he spent nearly ten years as a guest at the court of Safavid. In 1545 AD, he gained a foothold in Kabul and beaten Sher Khan Sur, the strongest Afghan emperor and captured the control of Delhi in 1555 AD. Humayun's died in 1556 AD left his 13 years old son Jalal-ud-Din Akbar popularly known as Akbar.

The Great Akbar

Akbar was best ruler of Moghul Empire. He had finished the incomplete job which was left by his father Humayun. He gained success at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 AD by help of Bayram Khan followed a vital procedure of growth on Akbar's behalf. After a few years Akbar came of age and took control of administration system in his hand. He was a ruler of unbeaten. He captured the all states surrounding his kingdom and expanded his domain from Kabul in the northwest to Kashmir in the north and Bengal in the east to beyond the Narmada River in the south. He established his capital Fatehpur Sikri near Agra, in 1571 AD. He emphasized on the growth of local income by developing of agriculture. Akbar authorized to land holding Zamindars and influenced them to collect profits and to transfer it to the treasury.

He was a flower of Muslim religions but the other religious flower did not suffered by him. He hired Hindus in his administrative system and rewarded Hindu chiefs with the highest ranks in government; he started intermarriages between Mughal and Rajputs; allowed new Hindu temples to be built and he took part in celebrating Hindu festivals such as Diwali and eliminated the jizya tax which was collected on non-Muslims. He established a new religion, called Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith), including the principle of all religions. He encouraged widow marriage, dejected child marriage and influenced Delhi merchants to set up special market days for women.


After the death of Akbar his son Jahangir was succeeded in the reign of 1605 AD to 1627 AD. Jahangir was remarkable for his political steadiness, efficient economic activity, lovely paintings and enormous buildings. He got married with a Persian princess Nur Jahan who appeared as a powerful character in the court Mogul besides the emperor. As an effect, Persian poets, artists, representatives and her family members took a majority on the court of Mughal. Jahangir enjoyed Hindu festivals but encouraged exchanged to Islam; he victimized the followers of Jainism and even killed Guru Arjun Das, the fifth saint teacher of the Sikhs.

Shah Jahan

After the death of Jahangir his son Shah Jahan was succeeded in the reign of 1628 AD to 1658 AD. Shah Jahan gathered and trained armies to beaten the Deccan ruler and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. For improvements of administration system and business throughout Lahore, Delhi, Agra, and Ahmadabad, he built a good communication by roads and waterways. The world famed Taj Mahal was built in Agra during his reign as a tomb for his beloved wife Mumtaz.

It is the best architectural discover among the all historical achievements in India. The financial situation did not increase because the management failed to create any eternal change in the existing social structure. Gradually, the major Hindu Zamindars stopped to pay profits to the imperial treasury and declere themselves independents.


Aurangzeb the last was ruler of Mughols in the reign of 1658 AD to 1707 AD. He seized the throne by killing all his brothers and imprisoning his father. During his reign, the kingdom reached its greatest physical limit, but also witnessed the definite symptoms of decline. He involved in a series of long-drawn-out wars against the Pathans in Afghanistan, the sultans of Bijapur, the Golkonda in the Deccan, and the Marathas in Maharashtra. He was a flower of Muslim religious and dislikes the other religious flower. He broke all Hindu temples in his empire and restarted the jizya tax which was collected on non-Muslims. He banned music at court, stopped ceremonies and persecuted the Sikhs in Punjab. After his death his successors involved in fight to each other for the Mughal throne. In that time the Persian and the Afghan armies attacked the Mughal Empire and they carrying away many treasures, assets including the Peacock Throne. At least the empire had ended in 1739 AD.