Usually, the people of India mainly depend on agriculture works from the ancient age of the nation. After Indian independent in 1947, human lifestyle was gradually changed and they search for new sources of income to survive. From the year of 1981 Indiân government provided many facilities to set up private industries. With the cooperation of government, last 30 years Indian private firms or industries increased vastly. Now, India is one of the best economically growing countries in the world.
The rapid growing industrialization is leading lots of environmental issues by its uncontrolled polluted emission. Other reasons of pollutions in India are the destruction of forests, emissions of vehicles, land degradation due to use of poisonous insecticide for agriculture, shortage of natural resources, rampant burning of wood fuel and many more. Pollution is the main reason to lead lots of disease, health issues and long-term livelihood impact.
Indian pollutions can broadly classify into four major types namely Air, Land, Noise and Water Pollution. There are several industries in India which are marked as highly polluting like Aluminum smelter industries, Cement, Chlorine, Copper smelter, Distillery indústries, Fertilizer, Iron and Steel, Oil refinery, Petrochemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Pulp and Paper, Thermal power plants and Zinc smelter industries.
Normal component of fresh air are consist of 78.084 percent Nitrogen (N2), 21.946 percent Oxygen (O2), 0.934 percent Argon (Ar), 0.0397 percent Carbon dioxide (CO2), 0.00182 percent Neon (Ne), 0.0005 percent Helium (He) and 0.0002 percent Methane (CH4). When these normal percentage of Air component behave like irregular due to the influence of several harmful gases, our surrounding environment becomes polluted. There are some example of harmful elements of air like hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and some greenhouse gases including carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane and many more.
Major reason to increase above-mentioned compositions in the air is industry emissions which increase the percentage of carbon monoxide and many harmful gasses. Vehicles also contribute up to 35% of air pollution in the big cities of India like Bangalore, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai etc. some other reasons of air pollutions are the burning wood fuel in rural areas for cooking and millions of old diesel engines persistently burning away diesel.
Most of the Indian big industries produce a large scale of polluted liquid emission which is normally wash out through a canal into river. A recent report describes that around 29,000 million liters of liquid dirt are produced daily in India whenever there have a capacity of 6,000 million liters per day. Directly or indirectly river is the main source of water. There have lots of rivers in India which are vastly polluted day by day due to lack of management by government. The most harmful elements which mainly polluted the river water are organic waste, sediment, mineral, nutrient, toxic chemical and many more.
Land pollution in India is due to the poisonous pesticides and fertilizers as well as corrosion during 2009, the issue of Uranium poisoning in the state of Punjab came into light, caused by fly ash ponds of thermal power stations, which reportedly lead to severe birth defects in children in the Faridkot and Bhatinda districts of the state. Other main reason of this type of pollution is poor garbage disposal services in both the rural and urban areas of India. It is very common in India to find out a heap of garbage on the Street corners.
Noise pollution is also very common in India due to negligence of government. There have rule in the country to not exceed the normal range (65 decibel) of sound to control the sound pollution. But, no one follow this rule and government also not strict about this. People rampantly use loudspeakers, mikes or any sound system without rules of govt. some other reasons of sound pollution are the noise of industries and vehicles.