WEST BENGAL (WB), is the fourth most populous state in India, located in the eastern region. Seven states of north-east India are communicated with other states through a bottle neck connector of West Bengal. The state lies between 27°13’15" and 21°25’24" north latitudes and 85°48’20" and 89°53’04" east longitudes.
Kolkata is the capital city of West Bengal and also the main town of the state. Some other Major Towns of WB are Alipore Duar, Asansol, Bankura, Barasat, Bardhaman, Berhampore, Jorthang, Chinchurah, Coochbihar, Darjeeling, Dinhata, Suri, Siliguri, Raiganj, Malda, Purulia, Kharagpore, Durgapore, Krishnanagar, Medinipore and Howrah.
Foundation Date: 1st November, 1956
Total Area: 88,752 km2
Temperature Summer: 38°C to 45°C
Temperature Winter: 14°C avg
Annual Rainfall: 175 cm avg
Best Seasons to Visit: All around the year
Number of Districts: 23
Neighboring State: Assam, Sikkim, Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa
Neighboring Countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh
Population: 91,347,738 (Census- 2011)
Population Density: 1,029 people per km2
Literacy Rate: 77.08% ( Males - 82.67% and Females - 71.16%)
Language Spoken: Bengali, English (Official Language), Hindi, Nepali, Urdu, and Santali
Major Religions: Hinduism, Islam and Christianity.
Currency: Indian Rupee()
State animal: Fishing cat (Machh-Baghrol or Bagh Dasha)
State bird: White-throated King Fisher
State tree: Shefali (Night-flowering Jasmine, Coral Jasmine, Parijat)
State flower: Chhatim (Devil’s Tree)
In West Bengal or WB, four main seasons are experienced: summer, rain, autumn and winter. From March to Mid of June, maximum part of West Bengal experienced a high temperature with much humidity. The temperature varies from 26°C to 40°C. But some time temperature reached more than 45°C. At nights, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal bringing relief to the people. In mountainous parts of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri, the average temperature in summer is near about 15°C.
During April to May, at day-time temperature grows rapidly with sunlight, so air pressure coming down. These troughs attract winds from the north-west and cyclonic storms and rainfall along with thunderstorms often occurs; these are known as Kalbaisakhi. After mid of June, South-West monsoons blows over the state, which pick up a huge moisture, from the Bay of Bengal. That moisture forms clouds and causes of rain in all over the state.
In West Bengal an average rainfall is 175cm. This season is known as rainy season. Until mid of September the West-South monsoon continue. During the arrival of the monsoons, low pressure in the Bay of Bengal region often leads to the occurrence of storms in the coastal areas. In October to mid of November, for a very sort period, autumn season is experienced in the West Bengal. The skies remain clear in the autumn and temperature begins to gradually decrease. High pressure is replaced by low pressure and due to its influence the retreating monsoon blow over the state.
Some time it builds up cyclonic storms near the Bay of Bengal. It is known as Ashwiner Jhar. This season is a festive season in West Bengal due to celebration of Durga puja, Kali puja and Diwali. From mid of November to February, being the coldest time in West Bengal. It is known as winter season. In plains of Bengal, the average temperature in winter is around 15°C. Where in Darjeeling and its surrounding area, it is experienced nearly 2°C average and some time it come downs to the freezing points with snowfall at places.