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Architecture of India

Indian Architecture is embedded with the Indian ancient history. By around 2500 BC, the civilization of Indus Valley attempts to build the urban environment. The story of Indian Architecture begins with Harappan culture. They were great builders, skilled in town planning. The houses with the various facilities, the granaries, the Great Bath, show how skilful and efficient the people were in construction.

Later, the Vedic period was marked by the unspecified pastoral settlements of mud, thatch, bamboo and timber in the valleys of Ganga and Saraswati. Indo-Persian architecture and Moghul architecture also attained their sublime expressions. Their architecture infuses Indian, Persian and Turkish architectural styles, whose zenith reached in the Tajmahal.

The earliest construction in the Indus Valley Civilization was characterized by well planned cities and houses. The existence of drainage systems and public baths showed superior standards of cleanliness and sanitation and creative planning. Large-scale sánitary sewer systems were in place in the Indus Valley by 2701 BCE.

The Vedic village had definite separate individuality that subjective following architectural production. The Vedic village could have a fort-like structure within it. The Vedic hymns speak of fort-like architecture made of stone and metal. The Vedas made different type of houses. This were respectively; house with a thatched roof, house of brick and stone that had a courtyard in the middle and a multi-dwelling complex with sheds for animals.

Religious Architecture

The architecture of Buddhism became prominence throughout the control of the emperor Ashoka. It is primarily characterized by three significant building types- the place of worship or Buddha temple, the monastery and the Buddhist Stupa as for example the wonderful caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa. During the Maurya Empire (321 to 185 BCE) the Stupa architecture was accepted widely in India. Wooden and rock cut architecture was also popular during Buddhist time period.

India is a country of Hindu predominant from ancient age. Vedic culture and thereafter Dravidian created lots of temple mainly in southern India. Some architecture still remain today with a great evidence of this age like, the Brihadeeswara temple, Thanjavur, and the Sun Temple, Konark temple, Tirupati Temple, Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, etc.

The Rulers of Vijayanagara (present-day Karnataka) were very famous for construct several architectural evidence. Vijayanagara city was ruled by several dynasties by following descending order Chalukya, Hoysala, Pandya and Chola Dynasty. All of them were Hindu rulers and they created lots of famous temples across Karnataka. Temple of Hampi, Kajuraho is very famous still today.

With the advent of Islam, the previous Indian architecture was slightly modified to allow the traditions of the new religion, but it remained strongly Indian at its heart and character. Arches and domes began to be used and the mosque or Masjid too began to form part of the landscape, adding to a new experience in form and space. The Jami Masjid at Delhi is a representative example of an Indian mosque.

Islamic architecture was also represented by distinct regional styles that drew a lot of motivation from the local context. Tajmahal, was the most famous Islamic buildings in India appeared during the Mughal period. Mughal architecture built on the traditional Hindu architecture with influences from the Persian world.

Modern Architecture in India

The architecture of India is embedded in its history, culture and religion. The economic reforms of 1991 extra boosted the urban architecture of India as the country became more incorporated with the world's economy. Traditional Vastu Shastra remains important in India's architecture during the modern age.

Growing alertness of environmental science has vastly influenced by Indian modern architecture. Some superb architectural examples of the country are the Indian Parliament Library in Bhopal, Lotus Temple of Delhi, Birla Planetarium etc. Jawahar Kala Kendra at Jaipur is a multi architectural centre constructed by Rajasthan government for modern arts.