The people of Sikkim are warm, simple and friendly with a nature gaiety. In general, they are known as Sikkimese. But Sikkim is a state of diverse communities, cultures, religions and customs. Sikkim has a good mechanism of living harmony in between people of the states. It is a good example of Indian “Unity in Diversity”. There are three main communities in Sikkim – Lepchas, Bhutias and Nepalese.
And also many people are migrant to Sikkim, from overall India (likely Marwaris, Biharis, Bengalis, South Indians, Punjabis, etc) and Nepal. They are mainly settled on the municipal areas of Sikkim, owing to their businesses and Government services. The developmental activities in Sikkim like construction of roads, bridges, buildings etc, have informally invited migrant laborers from the plains and Nepal. A few thousand Tibetan Refugees are there who settled well in Sikkim.
There are brief discussions about three main communities of Sikkim:
The Lepchas were said to be the original inhabitants of Sikkim the migration of Bhutias and Nepalese. The word "Lepcha" means the ravine folk. They were believed in the bone faith or mune faith based on the spirits, good and bad. They used to worship spirits of mountains, rivers and forests like any other tribes. Perhaps, this could be the reason why these people prefer to live in the healthy natural world. The Lepcha (Zongu) folklore is rich with stories. Nowadays they are mainly adopting Buddhism or Christianity. Near about 10 to 14 percent of the population of Sikkim are belongs in this communities. The Lepchas are concentrated in the central part of Sikkim. This area are encompasses the confluence of Lachen and Lachung rivers and Dickchu.
The Lepchas speak the language Lepcha, although this language is not very well developed but is rich in vocabulary related to the flora & fauna of Sikkim.
Lifestyle of Lepcha ::
The Lepchas have a very simple lifestyle. They are very intelligent and hospitable in their nature. They are peace-loving people who avoid quarrels. They love sports and very good at archery. The polyandry marriages are permitted amongst the Lepchas. They mostly live by business and on agriculture of paddy, cardamom and oranges.
They build a house known as "li". It has a rectangular shape and 4 to 5 feet height, made by wood or bamboo. A traditionally dressed Lepcha male wear half pajamas, under a robe made of striped cotton resembling a loose jacket- the whole ensemble is called a "pagi". The Lepcha lady wears a two - piece dress -a full sleeved blouse called "tago" and a skirt called "domdyan".
The Bhutias are originally belongs to the Tibetan origin. After the 15th century, these people migrated to Sikkim. Mainly they are settled on the northern part of Sikkim, are known as the Lachenpas and Lachungpas. The Bhutias speak 'Sikkimese' language, dialect of the Tibetan language. If compared with the Lepchas, the Bhutias are dominating large number of villages.
Lifestyle of Bhutias ::
A Bhutia house called "Khin" is usually of rectangular shape. The traditional dress of the male member is known as the "Bakhu" which is a loose cloak type garment with full sleeves. The ladies dress consists of a silken "Honju" which is a full sleeve blouse and a loose gown type garment. The ladies are very fond of heavy jewelry made of pure gold. Sikkim has its religion incorporated with Bhutias. Constituting around 16% of the total population of Sikkim, Bhutias regard priesthood as their academic as well as spiritual choice. The marriage in a Bhutia family is also arranged through negotiations. Before the marriage, the boy's uncle goes to the girl's house with gifts to ask for the hand in marriage for his nephew.
Bhutias usually take rice with animal fat fried vegetables or meat. The other foods are “Momo”(steamed samosa with meat inside) and Thukpa (Noodles). “Zhero” and “Khabzay” are beautiful salty tusks prepared from flour during the festivals like Losar/Loosong.
The Nepalese appeared on the Sikkim after the Lepchas & Bhutias. They migrated in large numbers and soon became the dominant community. In the present day, the Nepalese constitute 70% of the total population of Sikkim. They introduce commenced terrace farming in the state. Cardamom is an important cash crop that was cultivated by the Nepalese. Except for the Sherpas & Tamangs who are Buddhists, the Nepalis' are orthodox Hindus with the usual cast system and tribes like Bawans (Brahmans), Chhetries, Gurungs, Tamangs, Rais, Limbus, Magars, Damais, Kamis etc.
These people speak language that is similar to Hindi and is understood throughout the state of Sikkim.
Lifestyle of Nepalese::
The Nepalese are spread throughout the state. Their style of living is comparatively much economical. Their dresses and diets are simple. They are good farmers and businessmen. Also, they are ahead in education which enables them to get jobs in the Government.
The traditional Nepali dress for males comprises a long double-breasted garment flowing below the waist along with a trouser known as 'Daura Suruwal'. The traditional dress for females comprises of a double breasted garment known as 'Chow Bandi Choli'. The shawl wore by them is known as 'Majetro'. 'Khukri' is a heavy weapon that is carried in a wooden or leather case known as "Daab".