Rajput or Rajputra is a regional word of Rajasthan; its mean Son of kings. They were the descendants from the Kshatriyas or warriors of Vedic India. There were three major types of Rajputs descend in the medieval Indian history; the Suryavanshi who descended from lord Rama, the Chandravanshi who descended from Hindu god Krishna and the Agnikula tribes descended from the god of the Anali Kund.
There were 21 small kingdoms in Rajasthan. Different Rajputs clans ruled their own kingdom, among them the Sisodias Rajput had ruled in the state of Mewar (now in Udaipur), the Kachwahas Rajput had ruled in the state of Amber (now in Jaipur), the Rathors Rajput had ruled in the state of f Marwar (now in Jodhpur and Bikaner), the Hadas Rajput had ruled in the state of Jhalwawar, the Bhattis Rajput had ruled in the state of Jaisalmer, the Shekhawats Rajput had ruled in the state of Shekhawati and the Chauhans Rajput had ruled in the state of Ajmer.
The Rathod Rajputs were raise in power at the 11th century in the state of Marwar in Northern India. The creator of the Rathod power was Chandradeva after that his son Govindchandra Gahadwala was succeeded. Govindchandra was the most powerful Rajput of this dynasty. He ruled his domain from the capital Kannauj. He expanded his kingdom throughout the Northern part of India; including the University of Nalanda. He was determinate to defend his empire from Muslims attack. He established a new tax system which was termed as Turushka Danda (tax to battle the Turushkas or Turks or Muslim power). His grandson was Jaichandra Gahadwala who played a terrible role in Indian medieval History.
Prithviraj Chouhan was a great Rajput character of Indian medieval history. He established a strong Hindu kingdom in Delhi of northern India. He was a loving, polite and brave person. He lined his kingdom from twin capital cities; Delhi at Pithoragarh and Ajmer. Princes Sanyogita, the daughter of Jaichandra Rathod (Rajput of Marwar) fell in love with Prithiviraj and they got married.
Jaichandra Rathod was disagreed of this marriage, so, there was a clash between Jaichandra Rathod and Prithiraj Chouhan in the reign of 1189 AD to 1190 AD, both of them undergone seriously. While this drama was being performed, another monarch, Mahmud Ghori came from Afghanistan and captured Ghazni and then attacked the Ghaznavid Administrator of Punjab and beaten him. This kingdom was under the power of Prithiviraj Chouhan. Prithiviraj Chouhan had messaged to Ghori to leave from his area, but he was disagreed with him, so a fight was inevitable.
First battle of Tarain between Mahmud Ghori and Prithiviraj took placed at Tarain near the town of Thanesar in the year of 1191 AD. After long battle, the constant Rajput attacks had defeated the Muslim armies and the armies fled leaving their king Mahmud Ghori as a prisoner in Chouhan's hands. Mahmud Ghori was brought in chains to Prithviraj's jail. He begged to Prithviraj for mercy and release. At least the great king Prithviraj respectfully released the vanquished Mahmud Ghori.
After the next year in 1192 AD (second battle of Tarain), Mahmud Ghori attacked again with a better army in the same place of first battle of Tarain. This time Prithviraj was beaten very badly by attacking of Ghori's army before daybreak or night. The beaten Prithiviraj was brought in chains to Ghor's capital town in Afghanistan. Thus the history of the brave Rajputs, Prithviraj Chouhan was finished.
Muslim ruler had taken an important role in the medieval history of India. They rise in power after the 12th century in Delhi. They came from out side of India and wanted to capture northern part of India. In that time Rajputs were in power of northern India so, they protest them to protect their kingdom. Muslim power at first captured the kingdoms of Prithiviraj Chauhan and then Jaichand Rathod. But the Muslim ruler could never overrun the total country of India. The Rajput dynasties like the Tomaras of Gwaliar and the Ranas of Mewad were able to keep the power in their own hand. One such Rajput was Maharana Pratap who leads the Rajputs against Akbar's armies and conserved Rajput rule in Mewad.
In the Battle of Haldighati fought between Maharana Pratap and the Mughals emperor Akbar; the Rajputs were not able to overcome the combined strength of the Mughals and the internal enemies of the History kingdom. Maharana Pratap was badly hurt in the battle of Haldighati, but he was saved by his wise horse Chetak, who took him in a safety place away from the battle field. Although Maharana Pratap was unable to stop the Muslims effectively, but the History of Rajput resistance to Muslim rule continued till the 17th century.